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We used MATLAB (Version 7.8 R2009a) image processing to calculate the percentage of orange pixels in each and every image and to ascertain the average percentage of foliage obscuring the nest. Image processing in MATLAB required that we crop every image to include things like only the orange ball and train the plan to recognize orange-colored pixels by way of an iterative procedure on a group of sample photos to create a color palate. When we input the color palate into MATLAB, we calculated the amount of orange-colored pixels in every single image as a measure of foliage density. We made use of digital photographs and visual estimates to quantify foliage density at Dusky Flycatcher nests that have been active only in 2008 and to record TP-10 biological activity weekly foliage density measurements at nests active in preceding years. Within the earlier two years (2006 and 2007), we utilised a density board to measure foliage density at active nests. We placed a 0.25m2 density board at the center of each and every nest and an observer counted the number of white squares visible when taking a look at the density board at two height intervals (0.five m and 1.0 m) when standing 1 m from the nest. Observers recorded the two density board readings at every single of four cardinal directions around the nest. While density board measurements are normally used to estimate foliage density about bird nests [48,49], they had low repeatability across time when measuring foliage density weekly due, in portion, to the challenges of placing the density board inside the similar place on subsequent visits (K. Borgmann, unpublished data). Therefore, we employed estimates of foliage density obtained in the digital photographs in 2008 to assess the impact of foliage phenology on everyday nest survival of Dusky Flycatchers for all years of your study (2006?008). Though foliage density at a distinct nest site can transform annually, we think that the annual variation was smaller relative to the extent of seasonal change in foliage density (seasonal foliage CHF5074 custom synthesis maturation) at our internet sites.Energetic DemandWe evaluated the prospective effect of seasonal adjustments in energetic demand for incubating females by recording ambient temperature at our study web sites. Ambient temperature in cold, montane environments is believed to have an effect on energetic demand and incubation behavior [29]. We calculated the proportion of the day in which the temperature was beneath 26uC since length of offand on-bouts reduce when.Est was depredated [47]. We regarded a nest effective if we observed parents feeding no less than one offspring outdoors of your nest or if we observed fecal matter on the rim of your nest cup. Nests in which eggs or nestlings disappeared prior to their expected fledging date had been deemed depredated. Mainly because our objective was to assess the threat of nest predation, we regarded nests that fledged only Brownheaded Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) as productive (n = two). We did not consist of nests exactly where parental activity at the nest ceased but eggs remained intact (i.e., abandoned nests; n = four) or nests with uncertain nest fates (n = 1) in our analysis.the remainder of the breeding season. An observer stood 1 m in the orange ball and visually estimated the % from the ball obscured by vegetation as well as took a digital photograph (Kodak EasyShare C813 camera) with the ball though standing in the exact same location.

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